Male infertility is any condition where the male partner in a couple adversely affects the couple’s chance of pregnancy due to abnormal semen or sperm quality. Infertility is a common, but complex problem affecting about 15% of couples. In about one-third of couples, the infertility is related, at least in part, to male infertility factors.
What causes male infertility?
- Structural abnormalities in the reproductive tract
- Hormonal deficiency
- Sperm disorders (the most common cause of MFI)
- Varicocele (dilated veins in the scrotum)
- Other, rarer conditions such as genetics, immunologic issues, other illnesses, infections and medications
How is male infertility diagnosed?
- Complete medical history and physical examination
- Blood tests
- Semen analysis
- Occasionally further tests, such as testicular biopsy
How is male infertility treated?
- Stopping tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
- Surgery when appropriate (for example, to eliminate a varicocele)
- Other, more specialized procedures, such as in vitro fertilization