Male Infertility

Male infertility is any condition where the male partner in a couple adversely affects the couple’s chance of pregnancy due to abnormal semen or sperm quality. Infertility is a common, but complex problem affecting about 15% of couples. In about one-third of couples, the infertility is related, at least in part, to male infertility factors.

What causes male infertility?

  • Structural abnormalities in the reproductive tract
  • Hormonal deficiency
  • Sperm disorders (the most common cause of MFI)
  • Varicocele (dilated veins in the scrotum)
  • Other, rarer conditions such as genetics, immunologic issues, other illnesses, infections and medications

How is male infertility diagnosed?

  • Complete medical history and physical examination
  • Blood tests
  • Semen analysis
  • Occasionally further tests, such as testicular biopsy

How is male infertility treated?

  • Medications
  • Stopping tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
  • Surgery when appropriate (for example, to eliminate a varicocele)
  • Other, more specialized procedures, such as in vitro fertilization